Power Point Slide Show



PESTICIDE SPRAYING TECHNIQUES,
MEANING AND VALUE
BY: GAMAL I. OSMAN

FYI & FAQ
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FYI

Scientists agreed that pesticides and spraying techniques play the most important role in achieving the maximum efficiency and results in pest control programs.

The spraying technique known as the method of pesticide atomization and application which involves transferring pesticides from liquid form into spectrum of droplet size . Spraying equipment is the tool to deliver the pesticides in form of droplet size and achieving the full coverage and deep penetration on the target areas. The spectrum of droplet size, number and manner of distribution are the key factors for carrying out the most effective insect and disease control program in any pest control campaign.

The proper spraying technique has to produce the Optimum Droplet Size (ODS) for control of any insects, which give the maximum efficiency of pesticides by using the lowest quantity and minimum environmental pollution.

Lack of experience and knowledge about pest control and spraying technique around the world have created several problems such as: severe environmental pollution, deterioration in community public health systems, severe loss in agricultural crops as well as recorded resistance by both insects and parasite to pesticides and medicines, in addition to the pesticide toxicity and other relative problems.

There are 5 major Pesticide-Spraying Techniques, which can be summarized as follows:

1. Thermal Fogging Technique (TFT)
  • Pesticides must be diluted either with diesel or kerosene or mineral oil at a rate ranging from 1:9, 1:19, 1:29, 1:39, and 1:49.

  • The spectrum droplet size of TFT varies from 1 Micron up to 50 Microns.

  • There are two different types of fogging machines available to produce TFT;
    1. Jet Fogger (JF) – This unit consists of a burner, carburetor and fog tube in addition to a chemical tank, which is operated by two 1.5-volt dry batteries. The advantage of this jet fogger is that it is simple, light and inexpensive. However, the major disadvantage is that up to 45% of the pesticides active ingredients are burned up before the chemicals transfer into a thermal fog which creates the sub-lethal dose of pesticides and encourages insects such as mosquitoes, house flies, sand flies, among others, to develop a resistance against pesticides.
    2. Turbine Power Fogging Machines (TPFM) – consist of gasoline engine, turbine blower and combustion chamber (burner) where the pesticide is 100% safe from any degradation or burning.

  • Furthermore, the amount of the fog produced by TPFM is more than 10 times the amount of fog produced by the Jet Fogger.

  • Thermal Fogging Technique is highly recommended for control of adult mosquitoes or any other airborne vectors, particularly at the time of a major epidemic disease or outbreak. There is 100% elimination achieved at the time of application using TFT. However, there is no pesticide residual effect after 24 hours for this type of spraying technique.

2. Cold Fogging “Aerosol” Technique (CFT)
  • Pesticides must be diluted in water, kerosene or diesel using the above mentioned dilution rates where the spectrum droplet size varies from 20 microns up to 200 Microns.

  • CFT is highly recommended for control of both adult insects and larva, particularly mosquitoes and houseflies, due to the longer residual effects, which may last up to l0 days for pesticides of organic phosphorous compounds, or up to 21 days of using pesticide for synthetic pyrethroids group.
3. Ultra Low Volume Technique (ULV)
  • There is no dilution of pesticides and only ULV equipment is used to disperse ULV chemicals, which are highly concentrated.

  • The spectrum of droplet size varies from 10 microns up to 150 microns with high concentrated coverage.

  • The residual effects of ULV pesticides may last up to 21 days. However, the application of this technique needs a highly skilled technician with a strong knowledge of pesticides and spraying techniques in order to eliminate toxicity and environmental pollution. Applying the ULV technique near vegetables, fruits, fish, meat markets or public places is strictly prohibited.

4. Residual and Larvaciding Technique (RLT)
  • Pesticides must be diluted in water, kerosene or diesel at the same dilution rate mentioned above. The droplet size varies from 40 microns up to 300 microns.
  • RLT is recommended for both indoor and outdoor treatment particularly against adult mosquitoes and larva in and around the water body areas.
5. High Volume and Conventional Spraying Technique (HV&CST)
  • There is no rule of droplet size in this technique, which is considered a wash spray and used as treatment of pesticide application where the droplet size is more than 300 microns.

  • However, this technique is essentially required to treat mosquito-breeding facilities such as water bodies, marshlands, landfills and garbage collection facilities.
  • In order to achieve the most effective results for any pest control program, all of the above spraying techniques must be utilized together. No technique should be ruled out, particularly during a major outbreak or disease epidemic.


It is Important to Understand the Mechanism of the Pesticide Atomization Process in order to Form the Appropriate Spectrum of Droplet Size Required of Pesticide being used. Following Drawing and Chart summarize some details of this process so that The Effective Pesticide Application Campaign can be properly achieved with great success.

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FAQ


Q: In case of an epidemic disease outbreak, which type of Tifa fogging machine can be used?

A: Tifa machines: model 100E, 1504, TAPA and ULV-HD Plus can be effectively used for massive treatment for spraying of pesticide to control mosquitoes and other dangerous pests, by using Thermal and Cold Fogging Technique at intervals, ULV Techniques, as well as Larvaciding and Residual treatment application techniques.

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Q: What are the advantages of Tifa Power Fogging Machines in comparison to others?

A: TIFA Power Fogging Machines such as TIFA 100E, 1504, TAPA & TINA are multi purpose machines, which can be effectively used to disperse various types of pesticides, using several spraying techniques such as: a.) Thermal Fogging Techniques b.) Cold Fogging/Aerosol Techniques c.) Ultra Low Volume “ULV” Techniques d.) Residual and Larvaciding Techniques e.) High Volume and Conventional Spraying Techniques In addition, TIFA Equipment can be effectively used to achieve the maximum toxicity of pesticides and the maximum killing ratio using the lowest quantity of pesticide with minimal environmental pollution.

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Q: What are the differences between Turbine Power Fogging Machines and Jet Fogger Units?

A: Turbine Power Fogging Machines produce 100% safe thermal fogging techniques without any degradation with no burning of pesticide active ingredient. However, Jet Fogger units burn up to 45% of the pesticide active ingredient during application. Furthermore, Jet Foggers are lightweight units that do not last for an extended period of time, in addition to the high risk of fire hazard. While the turbine fogging machines “such as TIFA Equipment” are made of heavy-duty material that will last for over 25 years.

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Q: Are TIFA Fogging Machines economically effective in comparison with others?

A: Yes. For example, TIFA Machine 100E can cover up to 2,500 acres of treated area per day, where the fuel consumption is 1 liter per hour. When using for cold fogging/ULV and residual “larvaciding” as well as conventional spraying techniques, the fuel consumption is about 3 liters per hour when the machine is used for thermal fogging techniques.

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Q: In case of an epidemic outbreak, what pesticide spraying technique can be effectively used to bring the public health situation under control?

A: The Turbine Thermal Fogging technique is the most effective pesticide spraying technique to be used at the time of a disease outbreak. The massive killing of adult mosquitoes (close to 100%) must be implemented rapidly before laying their eggs. TIFA 100E machine has the capacity of producing this technique at the most performance and highest productivity in the vector control market, where up to 2,500 acres can be effectively treated per day.

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Q: What is TIFA’s guarantee to insure the quality and highest performance on its machines?

A: The after-sale service is considered the main key for the continued effective use of Tifa equipment with great success. Complete TIFA field back up service and local training programs, as well as TIFA large-scale seminars are the main goal to achieve 100% customer satisfaction guaranteed. Furthermore, there is a one-year limited manufacturer warranty on any major parts of TIFA equipment. In addition, all TIFA parts are available for the lifetime of TIFA equipment, which may last up to 25 years or more.

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Q: What about TIFA spare parts booklets and operation/service manuals?

A: Tifa literature, spare parts booklet, as well as the operation and services manuals are available in more than 12 different languages including: English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Portuguese, Hindu, Bahasa, Indonesian, Urdu, German, etc, which are available at no extra cost.

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Q: How are Tifa’s after sales services being provided?

A: Through Tifa Technical Engineers, stationed at TIFA Headquarters or Tifa Technical assistance offices throughout the world. Furthermore, TIFA local agents and representatives throughout the world are equipped with local workshops to provide on-site complete repair, maintenance, and services for the lifetime of TIFA Equipment.

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Q: Which machines are considered the most effective pesticide spraying techniques for the control of major insects?

A: Thermal Fogging Techniques, ULV Application are the most effective pesticide spraying techniques at the time of disease outbreak. Combinations of the three techniques are essentially required to protect the pesticide active ingredient from insect resistance and minimize environmental pollution. Other pesticide spraying techniques such as larvaciding, residual treatments, as well as high volume spraying techniques, are essentially needed to provide a complete and comprehensive vector control program indoors and outdoors.

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Q: How can TIFA be contacted?

A: Either directly through TIFA Headquarters in USA, or TIFA technical assistance offices or TIFA local agents nearest to you.